The 2011 Darfur peace agreement, also known as the Doha Agreement, was signed in July 2011 between the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement. The agreement established a compensation fund for victims of the Darfur conflict, allowed the President of Sudan to appoint a Vice-President of Darfur and a new regional authority for Darfur to oversee the region until a referendum could determine its permanent status in the Republic of Sudan.  The agreement also provided for a division of power at the national level: the movements that sign the agreement have the right to appoint two ministers and two four ministers of state at the federal level and to appoint 20 members to the national legislature. The movements will have the right to appoint two governors in the Darfur region.  „All parties must ensure that the peace agreement ends nearly two decades of suffering inflicted on civilians. People need to be able to go home and rebuild their lives with dignity. Today`s signing of the peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Sudan Revolutionary Front, an alliance of nine political and armed groups from different parts of the country, including states affected by the conflicts of Blue Nile, Darfur and Southern Kordofan, must meet the people`s aspirations for dignity and justice, Amnesty International said today. The agreement followed ten months of negotiations in Juba, South Sudan. Some armed groups have not signed the agreement, which could be an obstacle to its success. From the beginning, the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army Abdul Wahid Nur (SLM/A-AW), one of Darfur`s main armed groups, has refused to participate in peace talks. Nor has any agreement been reached with the People`s Movement for the Liberation of the South (SPLM-N) led by Abdel Aziz al-Hilu, which controls parts of South Kordofan and Blue Nile. SRF leaders raised their fists after the agreement was signed.
Rebel members of the Sudan Liberation Movement (MLS) and the People`s Liberation Movement of North Sudan (SPLM-N) had tentatively signed the agreement with the government late on Saturday. While the main armed groups participated in the talks and, in accordance with the agreement, the militants will now be able to move on to the national security forces, it was not yet known whether the army itself would be reformed. „Now that most parties to the conflict are on board the agreement, the Sudanese government must ensure thorough, effective and impartial investigations into allegations of serious violations of humanitarian law and human rights committed by members of the country`s armed forces and their allied militias, as well as by armed opposition groups,“ said Deprose Muchena. Hamdok said that after an initial agreement in September 2019, the search for an agreement had taken longer than expected. The Darfur peace agreement may refer to one of three peace agreements signed by the Sudanese government and Darfur rebel groups in 2006, 2011 and 2020 to end the Darfur conflict. He warned: „This is a peace agreement that integrates armed movements, but does not reform the armed forces that ultimately are responsible for most of the violence in the past.“ The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), a coalition of rebel groups from the western region of Darfur and the southern states of Kordofan and Blue Nile, signed the peace agreement at a ceremony in Juba, the capital of neighboring South Sudan, which has been hosting since late 2019 and has been helping talks since late 2019. „The peace agreement represents a glimmer of hope for millions of Sudanese in Darfur, Southern Kordofan and the Blue Nile, whose human rights have been systematically violated by the government of former President Omar Al Bashir and who have suffered terrible violence from all parties to the conflict,“ said Deprose Muchena, Amnesty International`s East and South Africa Director.